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les Enluminures

Breviary, Winter Part [Pars hyemalis] (Use of the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille)

In Latin, decorated manuscript on parchment
France, Picardiy (Lille)?, c. 1445-1461/1465

TM 307


286 ff., preceded and followed by 3 paper flyleaves (collation: i6, ii-xvii8, xviii6, xix-xxiii8, xxiv14, xxv10, xxvi14, xxvii10, xxviii14, xxix12 [14-2, missing 2 folios between ff. 255-256], xxx- xxxii8, xxxiii7 [8-1, with last folio of quire likely blank]), some catchwords, some contemporary foliation in red ff. 88-141 [medieval numerals 1-54], written in a littera textura formata script (by at least three hands), text copied in two columns on up to 32 lines per column (justification: 280 x 185 mm), ruled in brown ink, rubrics in red, single-line initials alternating in red or blue, 2-line high initials alternating in red and blue, larger 3- to 6-line high parti-colored initials with red and blue calligraphic penwork extending into the margins (ff. 7, 88, 96, 109, 102v, 161v, 165v, 177v, 269v et passim). Bound in eighteenth-century brown mottled calf, back sewn on 6 raised thongs, gilt back, title gilt in second compartment “Preces,”with a shelfmark “10” in sixth compartment, edges in red (Some scuffing to boards, important waterstain on first six folios and last folio, although not hindering legibility; a few tears to parchment (e.g. f. 121); lower strip of parchment cut out on ff. 4 and 6). Dimensions 400 x 285 mm.

This Breviary was made for the specific use of the Collégiale of Saint-Pierre de Lille and once formed part of the Capitulary Library. Liturgical manuscripts for the use of Saint-Pierre de Lille are rare; there is only one other Breviary known for this use and it is of a much earlier date (Cambrai, BM, MS. 31). Of unusually large folio format, denoting it must have served as a Choir Breviary, the present Breviary contains the winter portion of the Temporal.


1. Written for the use of the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, most important religious foundation of Lille, founded in 1050-1055 by Baudouin V, Count of Flanders, and whose Church was consecrated in 1065-1066. Originally, the Chapter counted some forty canons. The manuscript once formed part of the Capitulary Library, as indicated by the stamp on fol. 1 (see Provenance, below). The use is explicitly referred to on fol. 165v, for the Short Office of the Virgin. The Calendar agrees closely with the full calendar for the use of Saint Pierre de Lille, reproduced in E. Hautcoeur, Documents liturgiques et nécrologiques de l’église collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, 1895, pp. 5-16. One should note the presence in the Calendar and Litany of two notable saints tied to the Collégiale: these are S. Eubert and S. Piat, and the former’s relics were preserved in the Collégiale. The style of the decoration comfirms this dating. On the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, see Cottineau, I, col. 1614-1615 and works by E. Hautcoeur (for references, see Literature below).

2. Sixteenth-century ownership inscriptions, in lead or pencil throughout, copied in pale brown ink, throughout, such as: “Lestienne, 1577” (fol. 146); “Freumault, 1583” (fol. 138, with zoomorphic dragon-like initial F); and again “Freumault, 1581” (fol. 161v); “Lemois” (fol. 162); “Jacobi Collet, 1595” (fol. 160). E. Hautcoeur records a Canon named Gilles Collet from 1531 to 1557 (Hautcoeur, Documents…, 1895, p. 351). Other names and dates from the second half of the 16th c. are found throughout, for example on ff. 155v-156. Evidently the manuscript was in use in the later 16th century.

3. Eighteenth-century stamp (?) repeated twice on first folio: “Ex bibliotheca Cap[itulae] S. Petri Insulensis”, with arms of Saint-Pierre de Lille. This is the Capitulary Library of Saint-Pierre de Lille. There is an inventory of the books belonging to the Capitulary Library established in 1397 (see Deshaisnes, 1886, tome II, p. 756-759) and there are some 67 manuscripts from this Library in Lille, Bibliothèque municipale (see CGM, tome XXVI, pp. 3-4). It would be interesting to see if the present manuscript figures in either one of two 18th century catalogues of the Capitulary Library of Saint-Pierre de Lille, preserved in two manuscripts, respectively Lille, Bibl. Mun., MS 671, “Catalogue raisonné des livres de Saint-Pierre” and Lille, Bibl. Mun., MS 672, “Catalogue des livres de la grande bibliothèque de la ci-devant collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, départment du Nord, par N. J. Saladin…”(see CGM, tome XXVI, pp. 511-512).

4. Library of the Dukes of Arenberg, shelfmark 10, with ex-libris label pasted on upper pastedown: “Bibliothèque de la Sérénissime Maison d’Arenberg. Manuscrit no. 10. 1ere moitié du XVe s.” A small red paper label with the number "10" is pasted on the back in the sixth compartment: this is the shelfmark in the Arenberg Library. The Dukes of Arenberg were established in Belgium in the sixteenth century. Their collection, compiled mainly during the later part of the nineteenth century, was distinguished by many very fine manuscripts, including the famous "Hours of Catherine of Cleves" now in the Pierpont Morgan Library. The Arenberg manuscript collection, exhibited in part at Düsseldorf in 1904, remained largely inaccessible to scholars and was dispersed in the 1950s. In her reconstruction of the manuscript collection of the Dukes of Arenberg, C. Lemaire (1984) was not able to establish localization of some of the manuscripts that were once housed in the Palace of Nordkirchen or in the Hotel d’Egmont adjacent to the Palace, in what is referred to as the “petite bibliothèque” which contained the most precious items. However, in the list “Essai de reconstitution de la bibliothèque. Les 89 “manuscrits réservés””, no. 10 is not identified or localized (see Lemaire, 1984, p. 100).


ff. 1-6v, Calendar, use of the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, in red and dark brown ink, including: Aldegundis virginis (30 Jan.); S. Euberti Duplex (1 Feb.); Oct. sancti Euberti (8 Feb.); Symeonis (18 Feb.); Cathedra sancti Petri (22 Feb, in red); Macharii episcopi (9 May); Servatii (13 May); Oblatio S. Crucis duplex (16 July); Arsenii abbatis (19 July); Malpurgis virginis [sic](4 Aug.); Ypoliti sociorumque eius martyrum duplex lectiones .ix. (13 Aug.); Bernardi abbatis (20 Aug.); Obit for the Count Baudouin V de Flandres (died 1 Sept. 1067): Obitus comitis (1 Sept.)–Baudouin V of Flanders and his spouse Adèle de France were the founders in 1050-1055 of the Collégiale Saint-Pierre, whose Church was consecrated in 1066. The notable “Psalm of the Count” is found repeated a number of times in the Psalter on ff. 109, 115v, 124, 132, 141v: “Psalmus comitis”(see Hautcoeur, Histoire…, 1896-1899, vol. I, p. 407: “Les chanoines de Saint-Pierre y ajoutaient, pour le repos de l’âme de leur fondateur Baudouin, un des psaumes de la pénitence, différent pour chacune des heures, et suivi d’une oraison. C’est ce que l’on appelle le Psalmus comitis”); Remacli episcopi (3 Sept.); Firmini episcopi et martiris (25 Sept.); Piati martiris duplex (in red, 1 Oct.) ; Oct. Piati martiris (8 Oct.); Dyonisii eleutherii sociorum duplex (in red, 9 Oct.); Amati episcopi (19 Oct.); Waldetrudis coniugis beati Vincentii (3 Nov.); Perpetue coniugis beati Petri (4 Nov.); Livini episcopi et martiris (12 Nov.); Eligii episcopi et confessor, duplex (in red, 1 Dec.);

ff. 7-87v, Temporal, first half of winter part, from Advent through the fifth Sunday after Epiphany, rubric, Sabbato primo in adventu domini ad vesperas antiphona; incipit, “Veniet dies domini…”; rubric, Do[mini]ca .Va [post octavas epyphanie ad vesperas antiphona]; rubric, In .iii. nocturno antiphona “Sponsus…”[…] lectio prima, “Paulus apostolus non ab hominibus…”; explicit, “[…] Tu autem domine miserere nostri. Deo gratias”;

ff. 88-161v, Ferial Psalter, divided into eight parts: Psalm 1, “Beatus vir” (f. 88, Dominicis diebus ad matutinas); Psalm 26, “Dominus illuminacio mea et salus mea” (f. 96, Feria secunda); Psalm 38, “Dixi custodiam vias meas” (f. 102v, Feria tertia); Psalm 52, “Dixit insipiens in corde suo” (f. 109, Feria quarta); Psalm 68, “Salvum me fac” (f. 116, Feria quinta); Psalm 80, “Exultate Deo adjutori nostro” (f. 124, Feria sexta); Psalm 97, “Cantate Domino canticum novum” (f. 132, Sabbato invitatorium); Psalm 148, “Laudate dominus de caelis” (f. 142, Dominicis diebus ad vesperas); weekly Canticles and Hymns (ff. 143v-161v);

ff. 161v-164v, Litany and Kyrie; Litany beginning f. 161v, with noteworthy saints such as Sancte Firmine; Sancte Piate; Sancte Livine; Sancte Euberte; Sancta Waldetrudis; Sancta Aldegundis; Sancta Ragenfledis; Sancta Pharaildis; with some later corrections or additions in the margins of the Litany (Litany reproduced in Hautcoeur, 1895, pp. 107-112);

ff. 164v-165v,

ff. 165v-168, Little Office of the Virgin Mary (use of Saint-Pierre de Lille), rubric, Incipiunt parve hore beate marie virginis secundum usum sancti Petri Insulensis. Ad matutinas; incipit, “Domine labia mea aperies…”; with prime, antiphon, “Tota pulchra es…”; capitulum, “Hec est virgo…”; none, antiphon, “Alma virgo maria”; capitulum, “Per te Dei…”;

ff. 168-171, Office of the Dead (use of Saint-Pierre de Lille), rubric, Incipiunt vigilie mortuorum ad vesperas antiphona; incipit, “Placebo domino in regione…”; responses: (1) Rogamus te; (2) Domine qui creasti; (3) Absolve Domine; (4) Ne tradas Domine; (5) Ego sum resurrectio; (6) Tuam Deus; (7) Requiem eternam; (8) Qui Lazarum; (9) Libera me Domine;

ff. 171-182v, Votive Offices for the Virgin Mary (12 lessons), rubric, In commemoratione beate marie virginis semel in ebdomada; incipit, “Non est quod me magis delectet…”; rubrics, Item de beata maria (f. 173; f. 175); De beata maria post octavas epiphanie usque purificationem (f. 177); Item de beata maria tempore paschali (f. 180, with only 3 lessons of 9) [text unfinished]; explicit, “[…] per te ad vitam revocaret. Tu autem”;

ff. 183-255v, Temporal, second half of winter part, from Septuagesima (ninth Sunday before Easter, third before Lent) to Holy Saturday before Easter; rubric, Dominica in septuagesima ad vesperas antiphona; incipit, “Benedictus dominus…”; rubric, Sabbato sancto pasche ad vesperas antiphona; explicit, “[…] Collecta, Deus qui hodierna”;

ff. 256-286, Common of the Saints, rubric, In natali unius apostoli vel plurimorum apostolorum ad vesperas antiphona; explicit, “[…] Collecta. Deus qui nos in tantis periculis etc.”;

f. 286v, blank.

This manuscript contains the Winter part of a Breviary for the use of the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, and it must have been part of a two-volume set, the second manuscript most certainly containing the Temporal for Summer and likely also the Sanctoral. The use of Saint-Pierre de Lille is confirmed by the Calendar, the Litany, the Office of the Virgin (with a rubric specifically designating the use of St.-Pierre de Lille, f. 165v) and the Office of the Dead.

The manuscript appears to have been copied in the second half of the fifteenth century, likely after 1445, since one finds in the Calendar an entry for Saint Hippolytus (Aug. 13, f. 4v: “Ypoliti sociorumque eius martyrum duplex lectiones .ix.”): the Feast of Saint Hippolytus was made double and celebrated with greater solemnity as of 27 Jan. 1445 (see Hautcoeur, Cartulaire…, 1894, II, p. 998; Hautcoeur, Documents…, 1895, p. 262: “Fundatio duplicis Ypoliti per dominum Johannem Chevroti…”). The Breviary might also have been finished before 1461, since again the Calendar includes an entry for Saint Bernard (Aug. 20, f. 4v: “ Bernardi abbatis”): it is interesting to note that the Feast of Saint Bernard was made a double feast (duplex) with a modification of the Feast day, to be celebrated on August 27 and instead of August 20, as decided on 8 May 1461 (see Hautcoeur, Cartulaire…, II, p. 1031: “Nous devrons encore…tenis feste double de saint Bernard…Et pour ce que la feste dudit saint Bernard eschiet ès octaves de l’Assumption Nostre-Dame, elle se tendra ès octaves d’icelle feste saint Bernard à perpetuité en icelle eglise Saint-Pierre”). The present Calendar does not yet take into account this modification and maintains the “primitive” date of August 20 as in the Calendar included in the Ordinal-Obituary of 1283 (see reproduction of thirteenth-century Calendar in Hautcoeur, Documents…, p. 12): however, in the Paris 1533 printed edition of the Breviary, the Feast of saint Bernard is entered on August 27 with double solemnity. Finally, one should also note the absence in the Calendar of the “Visitacio beatae mariae” (2 July), founded in 1465 by Philippe Siron, Canon and “Doyen” of Saint-Pierre de Lille (see Hautcoeur, Cartulaire, II, p. 1040; Hautcoeur, Documents…, p. 267; Hautcoeur, Histoire…, II, p. 320-321: “A Saint-Pierre, il [Philippe Siron] fonda la solennité de la Visitation [1er février 1465]”). In all likelyhood, the present manuscript must have been copied sometime between 1445 and 1461/1465.

A small number of manuscripts are recorded for the use of Saint-Pierre de Lille, although we have found only one Breviary copied for the specific use of the Collégiale. This is Cambrai, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 31 (35), described in Leroquais, Psautiers, 1940, vol. II, pp. 278-279, n° 479 : “Bréviaire de la collégiale St-Pierre de Lille”, first half of the thirteenth century (see also Molinier, CGM, 1891, tome XVII, p. 8). This manuscript is a noted Breviary, whose use is identified by Leroquais because of the Litany and a prayer dedicated to Peter, patron saint of the Collégiale : “Defende, quesumus, Domine, beato Petro….” Also according to Leroquais, the responses for Sundays of Advent are in keeping with those printed in the Paris 1533 edition of the Breviary for the use of Saint-Pierre de Lille. The Breviary under the shelfmark Cambrai, BM, MS 31 was evidently not known to Hautcoeur, who in 1896 was confident there were no extant breviaries for the specific use of Saint-Pierre de Lille : “Pas un seul exemplaire manuscrit du Bréviaire n’est parvenu jusqu’à nous…” (E. Hautcoeur, Histoire…, 1896, p. 413).

Amongst the Office books specifically made for the use of Saint-Pierre de Lille, Leroquais records two Psalters. These are Douai, Bibliothèque municipale, MS. 173: “Psautier à l’usage de Saint-Pierre de Lille,” middle or second half of the thirteenth century (Leroquais, Psautiers, vol. I, pp. 187-188, no. 156). According to Leroquais, this manuscript was made for use in Saint-Pierre based on the responses for the Office of the Dead and the Litany, although Saint Eubert is not present (instead, Leroquais signals saint Olaf, who is not included in the Calendar for Saint-Pierre de Lille). The second Psalter made for the use of Saint-Pierre de Lille is Douai, Bibliothèque municipale, MS. 172: “Psautier de Saint-Pierre de Lille, adapté à l’usage de Marchiennes,” fourteenth century. Finally, most precious, is the Ordinaire-Obituaire de Saint-Pierre de Lille (thirteenth century, datable c. 1283) (Lille, Bibliothèque municipale, MS. 38) currently studied and included in the Census on Ordinals preserved in France, conducted under the direction of J.-B. Lebigue (CNRS, IRHT).

In conclusion, liturgical manuscripts made for the use of the Collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille appear to be quite scarce. In terms of breviaries there is only one other recorded manuscript for the Chapter’s use, a Noted Breviary copied earlier in the thirteenth century (date according to Leroquais, 1940). The present manuscript thus survives as a precious source for the study of the later fifteenth-century liturgy of the Divine Office in place within Saint-Pierre de Lille.


[Bréviaire. Lille, collégiale de Saint-Pierre]. Pars hyemalis breviarii precum horariarum secundum usum et consuetudinem insignis ecclesie collegiate Sancti Petri Insulensis ..., Paris, [François Regnault], 1533; Pars estivalis breviarii precum horariarum secundum usum et consuetudinem insignis ecclesie collegiate Sancti Petri Insulensis ..., Paris, [François Regnault], 1533.

Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France. Départements. Tome XXVI. Lille – Dunkerque – Bergues – Roye – Péronne – Ham – La Chatre, Paris, Plon, 1897 [CGM, tome XXVI].

Dehaisnes, C. Documents et extraits divers concernant l’histoire de l’art dans la Flandre, l’Artois et le Hainaut avant le XVe siècle, Lille, 1886, tome II, Seconde partie : 1374-1401.

Hautcoeur, E. Cartulaire de l’église collégiale de saint-Pierre de Lille, Lille, 1894.

Hautcoeur, E. Histoire de l’église collégiale et du chapitre de Saint-Pierre de Lille, Lille, L. Quarré, 1896-1899.

Hautcoeur, E. Documents liturgiques et nécrologiques de l’église collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, Paris, 1895.

Hautcoeur, E. “Le bréviaire de Lille du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle,” in Les questions ecclésiastiques 7 (1914), pp. 20-28.

Lemaire, C. “La bibliothèque des Ducs d’Arenberg,” in Liber amicorum Herman Liebaers, Brussels, [Amis de la Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier], 1984, pp. 81-106.

Leroquais, Victor. Les bréviaires manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France, Paris, 1934.

Leroquais, Victor. Les psautiers manuscrits latins des bibliothèques publiques de France, Mâcon, Protat Frères, 1940, vol. II.

Molinier, A. Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de France. Départements. Tome XVII. Cambrai, Paris, Plon, 1891 [CGM, tome XVII].

Seligmann, J. Illuminated manuscripts from the Bibliothèque of Their Highnesses the Dukes of Arenberg, New York, 1952.

Salmon, Pierre. The Breviary through the Centuries, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1962.

Tailliar, M. Notice sur l’ancienne collégiale de Saint-Pierre de Lille, Lille, 1850.

Online resources

On the Breviary and more generally the Books for Divine Office