TextmanuscriptTextmanuscripts - Les Enluminures

les Enluminures


In German, with isolated Latin inserts, manuscript on paper
Germany (southern Bavaria) or Austria, dated 1489

TM 456

149 paper leaves (collation: i12 + ii10 + iii2 + iv-xiii12 + xiv6 [wants 2 after leaf 148 for a full quaternion] + xv1), three watermarks are present in the paper stock: 1) a cleric’s hat with a stylised knot in circular form between the brim and the lanyard ends, with the lanyard above the knot in triangular form, a letter P between the lanyard ends, and all between the chain lines (an Italian paper of a type attested in three examples, Piccard-Online nos. 32238-40 (1489-90), and a near-exact match for no. 32240, attested in Innsbruck, 1489), used in quires i-xiii; 2) a bull’s head with eyes, a cross consisting in two lines ascending from the bull’s head, and a snake with an eye, an open mouth (without tongue), and three circles above its head wrapped around the shaft of the cross (a near-exact match for Piccard-Online no. 70928, attested in Lichtenfels, 1488, equivalent to Piccard, Ochsenkopf-Wasserzeichen, type XVI 235), used in quires xiii-xiv; 3) a pair of towers, between which is a gateway consisting in a single line, with portcullis, the towers each containing one window, and a letter g positioned some way to the right (a Ravensburg paper of a type attested in three examples, Piccard-Online nos. 101773-75 (1558-61), equivalent to Piccard, Turm-Wasserzeichen, types V 291-92, and similarly Briquet, no. 15929 (1559), most similar to Piccard-Online no. 101773 (type V 291), attested in Bamberg, 1558), used in the final singleton only; modern foliation in pencil, top, outer corner, recto, 1-79 (leaves 2-80) and 1-68 (leaves 82-147), hereafter ff. A 1-79 and B 1-68; written in one main hand, in black ink, in an irregular German cursiva currens (changing character markedly from f. A 56rb onwards; ff. B 40ra-42vb are almost certainly in a different hand, but with rubrics by the first), in two columns normally of 25-35 lines, lines unruled (justification 230 x 140 mm.); the marginal note “Merck” in a seventeenth- or eighteenth-century hand, in black ink, in the upper margins of f. A 44rb and A 45ra, and the right-hand margin of f. B 15rb; the word “Schwingdichau” in a sixteenth-century hand, in red ink, on ff. A 54ra and A 70va, with the word “Sumerwúniklicheczeit” in the same hand, in red ink, on f. A 68ra; and an additional heading in a late nineteenth- or twentieth-century German hand on the recto of leaf 81, two-, three- and occasionally four-line initials in red at the start of new texts, in two quite distinct styles (see e.g. ff. A 55va-56rb); occasional rubrication of majuscules, red lines to signal divisions of texts, and from f. B 1ra onwards, rubrics in the main hand, an enormous inkblot partially obscures f. B 52ra-b. Unbound, the quires loosely stitched directly together at top and bottom of the book block; a strip of white paper glued along the length of the spine, now largely deteriorated, under which remnants of earlier binding adhesive are evident; preserved in a blue cardboard box, covered in a cream paper, now much deteriorated, on the front panel of which a cutting from a nineteenth-century German bookseller’s catalogue is pasted. Dimensions 300 x 200 mm.

One of only three manuscripts of the complete, still-unedited text of the Elixir of Nikolaus Frauenlob von Hirschberg, an extensive natural-scientific compendium, which includes a treatise on mammals and a lapidary in rhyming couplets. Included also is a copy of the Arzneibuch of Ortolf von Baierland, one of the most widely-transmitted German-language medical texts of the later Middle Ages, of which there is no critical edition, and the Korpus der Klostermedizin, in which magical procedures and spells take their place alongside dietary guidance and medical instruction.


1. The scribe of this manuscript, which is written in an Austro-Bavarian dialect, names himself on f. B 68rb as Jakob Kreutter von Augsburg (Explicit hoc opus per me Jacobum Kreütter de augusta Anno domini Mo quadragintesimo octuagesimo Nono). This scribe is not attested in the Colophons des manuscrits occidentaux, and is not otherwise known. The date of 1489 is supported by the dating of the paper stock to 1488-1489 (see above, papers 1 and 2). No other direct evidence for the original provenance exists. The final leaf of the manuscript is a paper datable to c. 1558-60 (see above, paper 3), which suggests the manuscript was (re-)bound at that time, about seventy years after its production; no trace of this or any other binding survives.

The Korpus der Klostermedizin and, in particular, Ortolf’s Arzneibuch are sufficiently widely transmitted as to provide no useful conclusions regarding the original owner. The Elixir of Nikolaus Frauenlob von Hirschberg, which is much more narrowly transmitted, was originally produced in German for a lay patron, Paul Kren, resident in the Austrian town of Leoben in Styria. Three of the seven manuscripts containing either the complete text or substantial portions of it, however, were produced in and for religious houses. Lay ownership of this manuscript may be supported by the fact that Jakob Kreutter does not identify himself as a cleric or a member of a religious order.

2. Nineteenth-century German bookseller; cutting from a bookseller’s catalogue in German, printed in Fraktur, pasted on the front cover of the box, with the scribe erroneously given as “Jacobus Kreult.”


ff. A 1ra-79rb, Nikolaus Frauenlob von Hirschberg, “Elixir”: prologue (f. A 1ra-b), incipit, “DIe (sic) pegin ich an zeheben daz egenant půch durch einer notdurfftigen pechantnusse wil ich ditz půch ein ornung setzen daz man dester leichter erchen waz an disem půch geschriben stet...”

I/prologue (ff. A 1rb-vb), incipit, “[I]N dem ersten půch von den chrawteren vnd wurtzen stend an ains lxx stuck geschriben mit iren krefften vnd tugenden alß in dem nach geschriben register...”; I/1, herbs (ff. A 2ra-37vb), incipit, “BEtania wechst an rainer stat alß auff awen vnd auff wysen vnd auff pergen vindt man sy vnd gemaincklich In iungen stauden vnd lxxvj tugent alß her nach geschriben ist...”; I/2, spices (ff. A 37vb-40vb), incipit, “INgwer ist hais vnd faücht dar vmb pechumpt sy wol den stücken die da hitz vnd faücht pedorffen oder hitz allain oder faucht allain...”

The first book of the Elixir is a compendium of 69 chapters which document the properties of 55 herbs and 14 spices and provide instructions for their medical applications according to the a capite ad calcem principle: see Hayer, “Elixir,” pp. 194-5. [See further Führer, Das Kräuter- und Gewürzbuch (not consulted).]

II/prologue (f. A 40vb), incipit, “OB ich in dem ersten tayl dicz püchs icht vergessn het daz zu ertzney frümlich wer daz wolt Ich in disem gegenwirtigen tail dez püchs erfüllen Doch han ich mich pedacht daz do manigerlay ertzney der haymlichaid geschriben stend...”; II/physiology and diagnostics (ff. A 41ra-42vb), incipit, “DEs menschen leyb mit vier aigenschefften der vier element gestifft ist Vnd dez menschen leyb in den elementen aygenschafft stet Vnd dez leibs aygenschefften der element stat in der hitz in der chelt in der trucken in der ness...”; II/1 illnesses of the head (ff. A 42vb-45vb), register ff. A 42vb-43ra, incipit (A 43rb), “WEm daz haupt we tüt Man sol raüten vnd rosen öl ze stossen vnd da mit sol man daz gesyren pestreichen vnd dar auff pinden daz hilfft...”; II/2 -- of the chest (ff. A 45vb-46vb), register f. A 45vb, incipit (A 46ra), “Dem die prüst we tütt vnd zü vol vnflat ist Man sol nemen wol zestossen pfeffer polay vnnd mützen als mit geleicher wag vnd die mit ein ander ze stossen...”; II/3 -- of the stomach (ff. A 46vb-47rb), register f. A 46vb, incipit, “Welher mensch nicht stůl gehaben mag Man sol pappel würtz wol ze stossen vnd sol sy in ainem raynem schmerb in ainner pfan wol rösten...”; II/4 -- of the bladder, followed by libido-enhancing and –restricting recipes (ff. A 47rb-48rb), incipit, “Wer Im wider den harmstein helffen will Man sol verbena wurtz wol ze stossen vnd den safft also warm trincken daz treybt nicht allain daz gestain aus der platter sünder alles daz den harm hindertt an seinen außgangck...”; II/5 common illnesses, including instructions on bloodletting (ff. A 48rb-53vb), register f. A 48rb, incipit (A 48va), “SEeind (sic) ich in disem fünfften tayl sol sagen wie man die gemain siechtumb püssen sol So sol man auch sagen wie man der gemaine ertzney zu machen pechomen sol...”; II/6, gynaecology (ff. A 53vb-55rb), incipit, “Hye sol man sagen von dem Sechsten tayl (A 54ra) von der frawen geprechen vnd wie den lieben seligen frawen Ir chranckhaid püssen vnd vertigmachen sol...”; II/ equine medicine (ff. A 55rb-57vb), incipit, “HYe ist zu mercken ettlich ertzney zu den rossen vnnd sunderlich von den gemayn ertzney die dy roß angehören Zu dem Ersten zu roß ertzney ist zü mercken daz der roß pürczel Ist manigerlay...”

The second book of the Elixir begins with a short general introduction on diagnostics and human physiology, followed by instructions on treating medical complaints in six chapters: illnesses of the head, the chest, the stomach, the bladder (with sections on enhancing and restricting the libido), followed by a fifth section on common illnesses (including instructions on bloodletting), and a sixth on gynaecology. The final section of the second book is a treatise on equine medicine, which is a version of Meister Albrant’s Roßarznei: see Hayer, “Elixir,” pp. 195-197. This manuscript contains 26 of the 40 parts of the full section on equine medicine, which (using Hayer’s sigla) only manuscript S of the Elixir transmits in full; just one other manuscript (M) contains any of this section (12 chapters).

III/1 gemstones (ff. A 57vb-60ra), incipit, “HIe hebt sich an der dryttail ditz puchs als Ich verlassen han wie man in dem drytten tayll ditz puchß tugendt vnd chrafft manigerlay edels gestains vinden sol daz wil Ich yetzund gegenbürtiklichen erfüllen...” (A 58ra) “MEintt Ich nü hie sagen sol / Von dem edlen gestain tügent vol / Die Ich am Ersten sag / die edlisten nach der tugent wag / Dar nach wil ich nicht vergessen / dez anderen gestain zü vermessen...”; III/2 trees (ff. A 60rb-64vb), incipit, “AVch durch merer kuntschafft der dingen Seyt Ich gesagt hab von dem gestain So sol ich der pawm aygenschafft auch nicht vergessen Dar vmb hab ich für mich genomen auß zelegenn die maysten pawm vnd die aller er chantist sein...”; III/3 animals (ff. A 65ra-71vb), incipit, “HIe süll wir auch nicht vergessen ettlicher tyer natur ze öffen dar vmb Ist zu mercken ettleich tyer habent zwen füss ettleich vier ettleich mer ettlich habent chain füß Vnd al tyer die mer habent dan vier füß die habent nicht plut daz sich sich nach den anderen vindt...” (A 66rb) “AAls der leb ist erchant / Vber ander thyer ain chünig genant / Er hat ain listigen müt / Ob ym yemand laid tüt / Vmb ain leichs erczürnt er sich nit / Oder vmb g[r]oss in solicher pflicht...”; III/4 Birds (A 72ra-77va), incipit, EYn yeglicher vogel der do guter flüg ist daz ist daz er resch ist mit seinem fliegen alß die schwalben Vnd samlich vogel die vogel die da chlains leibs sind Vnd sünderleich Zü der zeitt irs schertzen...

The third book of the Elixir contains chapters on gemstones, trees, animals and birds, two of which (gemstones and birds) are in verse: see Hayer, “Elixir,” pp. 197-206. The verse treatise on gemstones (ff. A 58ra-60ra) is also known as the St. Florianer Steinbuch, on account of its transmission in a quite different version in a manuscript from St. Florian, and was edited as such in 1877 by Hans Lambel, Das Steinbuch, pp. 95-125. A synoptic edition of this text with the Elixir version in manuscript B (without knowledge of Hayer’s study, and thus of the copy in manuscript S) was published in Di Venosa, ed., Il Lapidario. This manuscript is an abridged version of the B text. The numerical designation of the gemstones as “zwelffer” is systematically removed, and of the 889 lines of the full text, lines 99-164, 245-372, 397-408, 451-78, 535-859, and 876-89 are omitted. This is, however, only the fourth manuscript known to contain the text: see further Di Venosa, Die deutschen Steinbücher, pp. 52-58. The verse treatise on mammals (ff. A 66rb-71vb) is edited from the two manuscripts hitherto known to contain it by Hayer, “Elixir,”, pp. 230-60. The version here corresponds to the variant readings of the B manuscript, not the S manuscript used for the edition. As with the text on gemstones, an abridged version is presented, which omits lines 81-116 (the leopard), 177-242 (final eight lines on the deer, and the elephant), 265-70 (the dromedary), 432-87 (the panther, the unicorn and the lynx), 564-87 (the mole), and 600-07 (the medicinal benefits of eating hedgehog meat). The third book is otherwise abbreviated in this manuscript: the chapter on birds contains only 21 of the 33 parts noted by Hayer, “Elixir,” p. 206, and omits entirely section III/5, on fishes, which otherwise only the S manuscript contains.

IV/1 orchards (ff. A 77va-78vb), register f. A 77va-b, incipit (A 78ra), “WElhen pawm man peltzt Im hornung daz ist der monad vor dem mertzen dez selben pawm frucht yst chain würm Vnd mag Im nit geschaden...”; IV/2 vineyards (ff. A 78vb-79rb), incipit, “WEychsel wein macht man also Man sol nemen ain gros tayl weychsel vnd sol die syeden In ainem chessel daz sich (A 79ra) die cheren da von ledigen...”; epilogue (f. A 79rb), incipit, “Also mit chürtz dez endes vnd dez viertten tayls ditz püchs wil Ich peschliessen Vnd die lassen peleyben Von aller lay chraütter vnd tugendt vnd ertzney So schül wir got dar In zü voderst an rüffen...”

The fourth and shortest book provides instructions on orchard management and viticulture and is a version of the Pelzbuch of Gottfried von Franken, the most widely-transmitted medieval treatise on the subject: see Hayer, “Elixir,” p. 207, and Giese, “Das ‘Pelzbuch’,” pp. 319-20. This manuscript presents an abbreviated version of the text, but is one of only three manuscripts of the Elixir (with S and W1) to present the section on viticulture, and (with B) only the second manuscript known to contain the epilogue to the entire work.

The Elixir is a natural-scientific work related to the Hausbuch genre, which provides a compendium of medical, medicinal, veterinary, natural-scientific and agricultural knowledge for an explicitly lay audience. A preface to the prologue, transmitted only in manuscript S (and not in this present manuscript), establishes the work as a German adaptation by an anonymous translator of a predominantly Latin text attributed to Nikolaus Frauenlob von Hirschberg. Nikolaus Frauenlob has not yet been identified, nor the Latin text found; it is, in any case, clear that certain German texts (versions of Meister Albrant’s Roßarznei and the Pelzbuch of Gottfried von Franken) were incorporated alongside translations and adaptations from Latin works. The German adaptation of the Elixir was commissioned by one Paul Kren, a citizen of the Austrian town of Leoben in Styria, who can be attested in that town in the first two decades of the fifteenth century.

Only two manuscripts (Salzburg, Stiftsbibliothek St. Peter, b VIII 12 [= S], and Berlin, SBB-PK, Ms. germ. fol. 944 [= B]) are otherwise known which contain all four books. Two further manuscripts contain just the first two books (Heidelberg, UB, Cpg 583 [= H], and Munich, BSB, Cgm 7250 [= M]), and a further six contain excerpts. The discovery of a third complete manuscript, albeit with a tendency towards abbreviation in the third and fourth books, is therefore of considerable scholarly importance. There is no critical edition of the entire work, nor a full study of the sources on which the Elixir draws.

ff. B 1ra-41va, Ortolf von Baierland, “Arzneibuch,” rubric, Hye hebt sich an die ertzney Maister Ortolfs von wurtzburgk dez Artzt geporen von Bayrn landt, incipit, “SAlomon spricht der ewig got in der propheceyen hat ertzney peschaffen dürch Ir edel chait vnd durch ir chrafft vnd der weyz sol sy nicht verschmachen daz ertzney edler sey dan ander chunst...”

The Arzneibuch of Ortolf von Baierland is among the most successful and widely-transmitted works of medical literature in German in the medieval and early modern periods. Ortolf himself is a somewhat obscure figure: a Würzburg surgeon with a university education active in the mid-thirteenth century, whose Arzneibuch represents an attempt to make the medical knowledge of the Latin university texts available to a German-speaking audience and to do so in a systematic and comprehensive manner. Around 70 manuscripts of the complete text and at least another 130 with excerpts survive, together with an extremely extensive transmission in print through to the mid-seventeenth century. The Arzneibuch reached its greatest popularity in manuscript and print in the second half of the fifteenth century, in which period this manuscript was produced: see Keil, “Ortolf von Baierland.” This manuscript contains, in comparison with the single-manuscript edition by James Follan, sections § 1-4, 6-23, 28-30, 32, 36-38, 41-54 [followed by two additional sections on uroscopy, ff. B 12vb-13ra], 55-61, 64-72, 74-80 (omitting the second half of § 80), 82, 84-89, 91-93, 95-97, 99-103 (omitting the second half of § 103), 105-07, 110-11, 114-20, 122-23, 125-29, 132, 134-40, 143-45, 150-52, 157, 162, and 164-66. There is, as yet, no critical edition.

ff. B 41va-68rb, “Korpus der Klostermedizin”

The Korpus der Klostermedizin is not a single text in its own right, and it has no independent elements (such as a prologue or epilogue) to distinguish it as such. It is instead a compilation of German texts presenting the medical knowledge of the monastic milieu, produced probably in Bavaria around 1300 and known in at least eleven manuscripts. The central elements of the compilation are, in this order, a German translation of part of the pseudo-Aristotelian Secretum secretorum; a treatise on juniper; a uroscopic treatise known as the “Kurzer Harntraktat”; a set of dietetic rules for the months, incorporating a text on the zodiac; a prognosticatory text for New Year; a prognosticatory text on the days of the lunar month; a text of the three days of particular misfortune (not in this manuscript); medical recipes equipped with blessings and spells; and (in later manuscripts, of which this is one), a collection of medicinal recipes and herbal texts: see Hirth, “Korpus der Klostermedizin.”

ff. B 41va-42ra, pseudo-Aristotle, “Secretum secretorum”, rubric, Hye hebt sich an daz taugen der taugen dez weyssen maisters Aristotiles .c. lxxviij capitulum, incipit, “DAs ist die potschafft dy aristotiles Sandt allexandrio dem mächtigen vnd dem hochsten kunig wie möcht behalten seinen leib vor siechtumb die Johannes von Hyspanie der Erst von chriechisch von arabico praht...”

The first text of the Korpus der Klostermedizin is the G1 translation into German of the Latin adaptation by Johannes Hispalensis of the Arabic Secretum secretorum. The G1 translation is most likely a thirteenth-century work, perhaps produced in northern Bavaria. It survives in fifteen manuscripts, and in eleven of which as part of the Korpus der Klostermedizin: see Forster, Das Geheimnis der Geheimnisse, pp. 143-47.

f. B 42ra, “Kranewittbeer-Traktat”, rubric, Von der chranbittper, incipit, “WAchaltter per oder chranwit per Wer dy isst siben oder newn die sterckent daz hyren Vnd machent dy sinn güt Vnd behütten daz gesicht...”

The Kranewittbeer-Traktat is a short text on the medicinal properties of juniper as a panacea, initially composed as a Latin text of Scandinavian origin around 1300. Ten translations into German are known from c. 1350, with over 40 manuscripts in total; one of these German versions formed a constituent of the Korpus der Klostermedizin. All texts are presented in critical edition by Kurschat-Fellinger, Kranewitt [not consulted].

ff. B 42ra-vb, “Kurzer Harntraktat”, rubric, Von dem haupt, incipit, “SEint daz haubt ist ein anefangk dez leibs Vnd dez menschen so söll wir (B 42rb) von dem haüpt an vahen wan es ist daz obrist vnd daz pest an dem menschen Wan der harm als ein dicker chrais ist so ist daz haüpt schwerlich siech...” (f. B 42va) rubric, Welichem siechtumb der mensch In dem haupt, incipit, “BEr nü wissen wel welchen siechtumb der mensch hab In dem haüpt der sol daz mercken an dem chrais der vmb den harm get als vor geschriben ist...”

The Kurzer Harntraktat as presented in the Korpus der Klostermedizin is a short uroscopic treatise, here providing diagnoses for ailments of the head; originally a Latin text from Salerno, written c. 1160-70, it was successful in German adaptation as part of the late twelfth-century medical work known as the Bartholomäus: see Keil, “Bartholomäus.”

ff. B 42vb-47vb, “In Jano claris,” in Latin, with the “Utrechter Monatsregeln,” in German, rubric, Wie man die manett soll er chennen, incipit (B 43ra), “[I]N Jana (sic) claris calidis que cibis pociaris Ne tibi langwores sint aptos summe liquores...” “In dem Jenner soltu niessen clar vnd warmer speys Vnd nym gewelligum tranck für den siechtumb vnd nym nicht zu vil wider wertigs essen...”

“In Jano claris” are the first words of a widely-transmitted Latin verse text which provides a set of dietetic rules for the months, with each of the twelve Latin segments (48 hexameters in total) accompanied in this manuscript by a German prose text. It is the first of an extended series of dietetic regimina in the Korpus der Klostermedizin. The German prose text here is a version of the Utrechter Monatsregeln often transmitted as part of the Korpus der Klostermedizin: see Riha, “Utrechter Monatsregeln,” col. 150. The same combination of the Latin “In Jano claris” and the German “Utrechter Monatsregeln” can be found in other manuscripts of the Korpus der Klostermedizin: see Keil, Meister Alexanders Monatsregeln, pp. 241-44, especially n. 41, with an edition of the Latin text pp. 253-54.

ff. B 47vb-48vb, Treatise on the Zodiac, rubric, Nu ich gesagt hab von den xij Monetten Nu wil ich sagen von den xij himel zaichen der ains in ainem yeglichen monet zu mittel ist, incipit (B 48ra), “NV hab ich gesagt von den zwelff monet Nu wil ich sagen von denn zwelff himel zaichen der ye ains in ainem yeglichen mon zu mittel ist dy zaichen sint also wider ochs zwinling...”

A short treatise on the characteristics of each of the twelve signs of the zodiac, linked in the Korpus der Klostermedizin to IIId.

ff. B 48vb-49vb, Rules for the Months on Bloodletting, incipit, “ES spricht Januarius es tregt nicht für daz man in einer zeit zü ader laz aber geschicht sein not So mag man dy adern lassen dy auff dem dawmen lauffent Vnd chain getranck daz dar ynnen geporn ist daz ist chalter natur Es spricht der hornung...”

A set of rules for the months with particular relevance to bloodletting, in which each rule is introduced as a speech delivered by a personified month: cf. Keil, Meister Alexanders Monatsregeln, p. 232.

ff. B 49vb-50rb, Prognosticatory text for New Year (“Neujahrsprognosen”), incipit, “Dye kalende dez Jenners wen si sint an dem Süntag So ist der wintter güt vnd warm So hatt der lentz vnd der herbst vil windes Der Summer ist trucken Daz choren gut vnd fruchtper...”

A text providing prognostications for the year ahead, depending on the day of the week on which the first day of the year falls; see Weisser, “Neujahrsprognosen.”

ff. B 50va-51vb, Prognosticatory text for the days of the lunar month (“Sammellunar”), incipit, “DEr erst mon ist gut an allen gescheffte wer in daz pett velt der siecht lange In dem schlaff daz dw siechst daz du allen deinen ain gesigst daz chind daz dar Innen geporn wirdt daz lebt lang es ist aüch gut man lazze...”

A text providing prognostications for the days of a lunar month; an example of type A4 in Weisser’s classification (see Weisser, ‘Lunare’, col. 1059), giving – as with all other manuscripts of this type – prognostications for only the first twenty of the thirty days of the lunar month.

f. B 52ra, “Escas per janum,” in Latin with German translation, incipit, “EScas per Ianum calidas est sumere sanum In dem Jenner ist gesuntt warmes essen zü aller s[tun]d Hic caue frigorem...”

The Latin verse rules for the months “Escas per janum calidas est sumere sanum” (Walther, Initia carminum, no. 5538, p. 278), equipped (the leaf obscured by a massive inkblot) with the later translation into German verse: see Keil, Meister Alexanders Monatsregeln, pp. 244-46, with an edition at pp. 255-56, and idem, “Die Grazer frühmittelhochdeutschen Monatsregeln,” pp. 139-46, with a synoptic edition alongside the earlier translation (the “Grazer Monatsregeln”) at pp. 143-44.

ff. B 52va-53rb, Medical recipes with blessings and spells, rubric, Für das paralis, incipit, “EVr (sic) das paralis schreyb den brieff den er geseret hab der trag in pey Im + hely + rymerum + Gunt + gütta + nay + die an got lieb sint geweicht so schreib er den namen des siechen...”, followed by spells and recipes (B 52va-b) fur die hitz, (B 52vb) für den schmertzen, (B 52vb) fur den hundt piß, (B 52vb-53ra) against worms in horses, (B 53ra) against vomiting, (B 53ra-b) für daz aytter, and (B 53rb) für daz paralis.

These texts amongst others are preserved in some of the more extended manuscripts of the Korpus der Klostermedizin; a selection is edited (including some of the above) by Follan, “Manuscripts,” pp. 46-52.

ff. B 53rb-68rb, Medical recipes and herbal texts, some from the “Macer”:

ff. B 53rb-55va, Recipes for ailments of and injuries to the eyes (seven), ears (two), and the head and throat (eight), incipit, “ZV den plut varben augen Nym ains weysßes ains ays vnd zu treyb es mit wasser vnd ephich safft vnd tail daz vnd salb dy augen da mit so vertreybt es daz plüt Oder nym grün wermüt daz zetreib mit einem weyssen ains ays...”

ff. B 55va-59vb, Herbs and medicinal plants (sixteen), rubric, lauch ist gut vnd nütz, incipit, “Porren haist zü deütsch laúch ypocras ein maister spricht wer den siechtumb hat der da haist Emphrofs daz ist dy da plütt reyssent der sol laúcht safft trincken vnd nützen...”

ff. B 59vb-60va, Medical and medicinal recipes with spells, rubric, Wer chrotten im pauch, incipit, “WEr chrotten in dem paüch hat der trinck esel milich Vnd Iren harm Vnnd lig In dem pad alz (59ra) lang ers múg erleyden So wirt er zü handt erlöst Für dy drüse an dem hals nym eines helders marck...” (B 59ra), rubric, von der prüst, incipit, “FVr den betagen der prüst Nym raútten gesotten In wein Vnd trinck es nüchter Für den schmertzen der oren nym warm harm von deinem kinde...”

ff. B 60va-62va, Herbs and medicinal plants (eleven), rubric, von dem knofflach, incipit, “SOrdean grate sunt alia dicta legitime Sordeon chnoffleich alie lumine Vnd zü deütsch chnofflach vnd so dy bewarte ertzney sein natur vindet trücken oder haisß vnd setzet in an den vierden staffel beleyben...”

ff. B 62va-64rb, Recipes and spells against miscellaneous predicaments, incipit, “Ob ein chind tod in der gepurd in hant wirfft es auz dy gepurd Aber laucht pletter geprochen vnd der dy auff den pauch pindet zw handt treybt es auz die purd...”, commencing with recipes to remove a dead foetus from the womb, and including (ff. B 64ra-b) magical procedures to determine whether an individual will live or die, and to determine the sex of an unborn child.

ff. B 64rb-65rb, Herbs and medicinal plants (ten), incipit, “GAlganum conditum daz ist gemachtes galgan vnd der In früe isst daz fromet dem haupt vnd vertreybt den stanck dez mundes vnd raynigt daz plut dez er in dem mund helt es treybt auz daz pöß plut vnd raynigt die prust...”

ff. B 65rb-67va, Recipes against miscellaneous predicaments, rubric, für daz paralis, incipit, “FVr daz paralis nym von ersten peypos samen Nessel wurtz vnd pilsen samen mit seiner wurtz vnd hirsen vnslit vnd weysses wachs vnd wein dy misch zu samen...”, including (ff. B 66ra-b) a text on the nine causes of leprosy, and (ff. B 66va-b) a text on the four causes of gallstones.

ff. B 67va-68rb, Herbs and medicinal plants (three), incipit, “TAphanus ist fewcht vnd warm vnd hat dy chrafft der In yst vnd saltz dar auff sprenget vnd yst In vastend der geit werm den magen vnd verdewt alles essen vnd vertruckent vnd tzwingt auz gen...”

The final section of the Korpus der Klostermedizin is the most variable, and – as in this case – can be substantially augmented with later texts. This manuscript is very similar in its contents to Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Msc. Med. 22 (olim L III 38), ff. 51r-103r (dated 1463), and to Stuttgart, WLB, HB XI 11, ff. 119r-178v. In both cases, as here, the work is preceded by Ortolf’s Arzneibuch; see Follan, “Manuscripts,” pp. 36-40.


Follan, James, ed., Das Arzneibuch Ortolfs von Baierland nach der ältesten Handschrift (14. Jhdt.) (Stadtarchiv Köln W 4o 24*), Veröffentlichungen der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Pharmazie e. V. N. F. 23, Stuttgart, 1963.

Follan, James, “Manuscripts of Ortolf von Bayerlants ‘Arzneibuch’. Their Contents, Exemplifying German Mediaeval ‘Artesliteratur’,” in Gundolf Keil et al., eds., Fachliteratur des Mittelalters. Festschrift für Gerhard Eis, Stuttgart, 1968, pp. 31-52.

Forster, Regula, Das Geheimnis der Geheimnisse. Die arabischen und deutschen Fassungen des pseudo-aristotelischen Sirr al-asrār / Secretum secretorum, Wissensliteratur im Mittelalter 43, Wiesbaden, 2006.

Führer, Sonja. “Das Kräuter- und Gewürzbuch aus dem Hausbuch des Nikolaus Frauenlob von Hirschberg. Untersuchungen und Textedition,” Unpublished Undergraduate Dissertation, University of Salzburg, 2000. [not consulted]

Giese, Martina. “Das ‘Pelzbuch’ Gottfrieds von Franken. Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung,” Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum 134 (2005), pp. 294-335.

Hayer, Gerold. “Elixir Nicolay Frawnlob von Hiersperg. Untersuchungen zur Überlieferung eines spätmittelalterlichen heil- und naturkundlichen Hausbuches (mit Teiledition),” in Peter K. Stein with Renate Hausner et al., eds., Sprache – Text – Geschichte. Beiträge zur Mediävistik und germanistischen Sprachwissenschaft aus dem Kreis der Mitarbeiter 1964-1979 des Instituts für Germanistik an der Universität Salzburg, Göppinger Arbeiten zur Germanistik 304, Göppingen, 1980, pp. 185-265.

Hirth, Wolfgang. “Korpus der Klostermedizin,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 5, 321-25.

Keil, Gundolf. “Eine Lateinische Fassung von Meister Alexanders Monatsregeln. Bairische Gesundheitsregeln aus dem Ende des 14. Jahrhunderts,” Ostbairische Grenzmarken 4 (1960), 123-38; repr. in idem and Gerhard Baader, eds., Medizin im mittelalterlichen Abendland, Wege der Forschung 363, Darmstadt, 1982, pp. 228-59 [cited].

Keil, Gundolf. “Die Grazer frühmittelhochdeutschen Monatsregeln und ihre Quelle,” in idem et al., eds., Fachliteratur des Mittelalters. Festschrift für Gerhard Eis, Stuttgart, 1968, pp. 139-46.

Keil, Gundolf. “Bartholomäus,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 1, pp. 609-15.

Keil, Gundolf. “In Jano claris,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 4, pp. 373-75.

Keil, Gundolf. “Ortolf von Baierland (von Würzburg),” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 7, pp. 67-82.

Keil, Gundolf and Sabine Kurschat-Fellinger, “Kranewittbeer-Traktat,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 5, pp. 338-40.

Keil, Gundolf and Johannes G. Mayer, “Tierkreiszeichenlehre,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 9, pp. 923-30.

Kurschat-Fellinger, Sabine. Kranewitt. Untersuchungen zu den altdeutschen Übersetzungen des nordischen Wacholderbeertraktats, Mittelalterliche Wunderdrogentraktate 3. Würzburger medizinhistorische Forschungen 20, Pattensen, 1983. [not consulted]

Lambel, Hans, ed., Das Steinbuch. Ein altdeutsches Gedicht von Volmar, Heilbronn, 1877.

Riha, Ortrun. “Utrechter Monatsregeln,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 10, pp. 148-152.

di Venosa, Elena. Il Lapidario di Sankt Florian. Edizione sinottica dei codici Sankt Florian XI 37 e Berlino Germ. Fol. 944, Milan, 2001.

di Venosa, Elena. Die deutschen Steinbücher des Mittelalters. Magische und medizinische Einblicke in die Welt der Steine, Göppinger Arbeiten zur Germanistik 714, Göppingen, 2005.

Walther, Hans. Carmina medii aevi posterioris latina, 1, Initia carminum ac versuum medii aevi posterioris latinorum. Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Versanfänge mittellateinischer Dichtungen, Göttingen, 1959.

Weisser, Christoph. “Lunare,” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 5, pp. 1054-62.

Weisser, Christoph. “Neujahrsprognosen (Christtagsprognosen, ‘Esdras’ Weissagungen’),” 2Verfasserlexikon, vol. 6, pp. 915-18.

Online resources

Manuscripts of Ortolf’s Arzneibuch, partial listing (53 mss.)

Incunable editions of Ortolf’s Arzneibuch, with links to digitized copies

Solothurn, ZB, Cod. S 386, with the Korpus der Klostermedizin

Stuttgart, Hauptstaatsarchiv, Bestand J 340, Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard