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les Enluminures

LAMBERTUS AUTISSIODORENSIS [LAMBERT OF AUXERRE], Summa logicae [followed by] [ANONYMOUS], Two Grammatical Treatises

In Latin, manuscript on parchment
France, Paris?, c. 1280-1300

TM 232

60 folios, on parchment (collation as follows: i-iii12, iv10, v12, vi2 [2 consecutive singletons from a gathering of unknown length], lacking at the end), the words “primus sexternus” copied in lower margin of first quire, catchwords on all final versos, text copied in two columns of up to 47 lines, written in brown ink in a small gothic cursive bookhand (change of color of ink on fol. 54v, ink almost black), some passages in larger rounded gothic script, ruled in plummet (justification 150 x 54 x 54 mm.), paraph marks alternately in red and blue, 2-line initials in red or blue with opposing blue or red calligraphic penwork, opening foliate initial painted in pink and highlighted in white tracery on a blue ground also with white tracery and burnished gold besants (glue from spine spread onto endleaf causing lifting of a few words in left-hand column and small portion of descending illuminated baguette (f. 1)). Covered in 19th c. patterned paper (spine lacking, gatherings disbound). Dimensions 210 x 155 mm.

One of 15 known copies of an important treatise on logic by Lambert of Auxerre (Lambert de Lagni), the only one in private hands and the only manuscript to connect the author with the important thirteenth-century school of the Abbey of Saint-Victor in Paris. Accompanied by two other grammatical treatises, the first unique and otherwise unrecorded, and the second evidently known in only two other copies.


1. Script and decoration both strongly suggest a later 13th century origin for this manuscript, likely copied in France, close to the manuscripts produced in Paris, with an opening illuminated decorated initial, in keeping with Parisian later 13th c. style (Branner, pp. 127-141, compare pl. 383, 384, 386 and 407). Contemporary note in upper margin of first folio: “Sancti Spiritus assit nobis gratia” (beginning of the liturgical sequence of Pentecost). This same inscription appears in a composite manuscript of works by Bede, Huntington Library, HM 35300, f. 111, dated England, end of the 13th c. (see C. W. Dutschke with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library, San Marino, 1989, p. 707: “In the upper margin of f. 111 in the hand of the scribe: ‘Sancti spiritus assit nobis gratia’”).

2. Mr. Hull, his sale, Howe, Leonard & Co., auctioneers, Boston, Mass., 9 November 1846, no. 210.

3. Given to the Library of the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Reverend Appleton Grannis (21 November 1921), with its shelfmark “22025” (see pencil note on verso of first flyleaf). The school’s instructor in Church History, Reverend J. R. Wright, announced its discovery in Bulletin de Philosophie médiévale, 8-9 (1966-1967), pp. 123-126, providing information on its early 20th c. provenance (evidently not in De Ricci). A number of unidentified former shelfmarks, copied in brown ink on upper pastedown and flyleaves of paper covering.


ff. 1-47, Lambertus Autissiodorensis, Summa logicae [Summule] [Summa Lamberti], incipit, “Ut novi atrium auditors plenius intelligent ea que in simulis [sic] edocentur valde utilis est cognition dicendorum…”; explicit, “[…] si sine sua dispositione ipsum referet. Explicit summula magistri Lamberti fratris de Sancto Victore sive Sancti Victoris”;

This is the Summa logicae by Lambert of Auxerre (Lambert de Lagny), recorded in Mohan (1952), p. 476 and Lohr (1971), p. 307. The actual biography and persona of Lambert of Auxerre or Lambert de Lagny still remains somewhat conjectural, with a few copies of his Summa logicae referring to a Lambert de Ligny (this could be Lambert de Lagny in the service of the counts of Champagne from 1263 to 1265) and member of the Order of Preachers (see de Libera [1981], pp. 229-232, esp. p. 231, where he recognizes “Maître Lambert de Lagny” as the author of the Summa logicae, although he cautions that the hypothesis remains precarious.

The work consists of eleven chapters: De introductionibus, De predicabilibus, De argumentatione sillogistica, De locis dialeticis, De locis sophisticis, De suppositionibus, De appellatione, De restricione, De ampliatione, De distributionibus, De relatione. Lambert of Auxerre’s Summa logicae was written at Troyes (or Pamplona) between 1253 and 1257, and its “publication” followed, likely in Paris between 1257 and 1276, most likely about 1260.

According to De Rijk, the work is extant in 11 manuscripts, listed in Vivarium 7 (1969), p. 162, but in 1981 de Libera recorded some 15 extant manuscripts, all in public collections (pp. 227-228), as did Kaeppeli (1980, III, p. 58). The present manuscript was known to Lohr (1971), p. 307 (Cambridge, Mass. Episcopal Theological School, acc. no. 22025). It is significant that it is the only manuscript that identifies Lambert as tied to the Canons Regular of Saint-Victor, while a selection of other manuscripts state that he was a member of the Dominicans or Order of Preachers (see in particular the explicit found in Padua, Bibl. Univers., MS. 647, f. 131v). The latest research conducted by de Libera (1981) reveals that the Summa Lamberti was composed by a Master Lambert de Lagny, a cleric working for Thibaud V, the Count of Champagne and King of Navarre.

A critical edition of the Summa Lamberti was established by Alessio (1971), and de Libera (1981, pp. 250-285) provided a critical edition of the eighth chapter of the work, De appellatione, based on five manuscripts, including the present one (manuscript C for “Cambridge” in his stemma). The Summa logicae of Lambert de Lagny (Lambert d’Auxerre) has also been extensively studied in relation to the Tractatus attributed to another logician, specifically Peter of Spain (see the studies by De Rijk, who argues in favor of the independence of the two treatises, and also de Libera, who studied Lambert de Lagny’s relationship with other logicians of the period).

ff. 47-55v, [Anonymous], [Tractatus de grammatica], incipit, “Circa pueriles disputationes…”; explicit, “[…] non posit dare alii”; explicit, “[…] solum sed penultiem (?). Expliciunt questiones”;

This treatise, complete in itself, appears in none of the specialized literature or repertories of medieval grammatical treatises (not in Bursill-Hall). It appears to be unrecorded and furthermore unedited.

ff. 55v-60v, [Anonymous], [Tractatus de grammatica], incipit, underlined in red: “Arcubius descendens de turre frangitur crux…”; explicit, “[…] Inter propositum est archidiaconum magdalenensis (?) ibant … est propositio et […]” [lacks ending]. Recorded in In principio database as “Tractatus de grammatical.”

This anonymous grammatical treatise is also found in Milan, Bibl. Trivulziana, Cod. N. 636, ff. 1-17v and Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, MS. 3794, ff. 69v-84v. Both these manuscripts are listed in Bursill-Hall (1981, respectively as no. 168.4.1, on p. 140, and no. 207.8.7, on p. 188).


Alessio, F. Lamberto d’Auxerre. Logica (Summa Lamberti), Florence, La Nuova Italia, 1971 [Publicazioni della Facolta di Lettere e filosofia dell’Università di Milano, 59].

Branner, Robert. Manuscript Painting in Paris during the Reign of Saint Louis, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1977.

Bursill-Hall, G. L. A Census of Medieval Latin Grammatical Manuscripts, Stuttgart, 1981.

Daunou, P.-C.-F. Histoire littéraire de la France, tome XIX, Paris, F. Didot, 1838, pp. 416-417.

De Rijk, L. M. “On the Genuine Text of Peter of Spain’s Summule logicales, IV: The Lectura tractatum by Guillelmus Arnaldi Master of Arts at Toulouse (1235-1244), with a note on the date of Lambert of Auxerre’s Summule,” Vivarium 7 (1969), pp. 160-162.

De Rijk, L. M. Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus Portugalensis), Tractatus, called afterwards Summule logicales…, Assen, 1972.

Kaeppeli, T. Scriptores ordinis praedicatorum medii aevi, III, Rome, S. Sabinae, 1980.

Kretzmann, N. and E. Stump. The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts. Volume One. Logic and the Philosophy of Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 102-162.

Libera, A. de. “De la logique à la grammaire : remarques sur la théorie de la determination chez Roger Bacon et Lambert d’Auxerre (Lambert de Lagny),” in De ortu grammaticae. Studies in Medieval Grammars and Linguistic Theory in Memory of Jan Pinborg…, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 1990, pp. 209-226.

Libera, A. de. “Le traité De appellatione de Lambert de Lagny (Lambert d’Auxerre),”Archives d’histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age 48 (1981), pp. 227-285.

Lohr, C. “Latin Aristotle Commentaries I: Medieval Authors,” Traditio 27 (1971), p. 307.

Mohan, G. “Incipits of logical writings in Latin (XIII-XIVth c.),”Franciscan Studies 12 (1952), p. 476.

Wright, J. R. “Lambert of Auxerre. The ETS Codex” [Episcopal Theological School],”Bulletin de Philosophie médiévale 8-9 (1966-1967), pp. 123-126.

Online resources

Medieval Logic and Philosophy, University of Indiana

Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms/Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy