TextmanuscriptTextmanuscripts - Les Enluminures

les Enluminures

[Miscellany of Scholastic and Theological Writing] including excerpts from the Old Testament; CONRADUS DE SOLTAU, Quaestiones super quatuor libri sententiarum Petri Lombardi; PSEUDO-THOMAS AQUINAS; De sacramento corporis Domini; PSEUDO-ALBERTUS MAGNUS (or Albertus Haigerloch de Oderaltaich ?), Compendium super Ave Maria

In Latin, manuscript on paper
[Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) or Bohemia (perhaps Prague ?), dated 1427]

TM 119

[I]-226 ff. including paper flyleaves-[II], on paper [watermarks close to but not identical to “Tête de boeuf à yeux et à nez, sommé d’une étoile,” in Briquet, no. 14146: Prague 1396; in Piccard, Die Ochsenkopf, II, 3, Abteilung XII, no. 593-594, Vienna, 1392-1397; another watermark also very close to “Croix,” close to Briquet, no. 5625,Vienna (1420)], complete (collation i8(12-4) (last four cancelled), ii12, iii8, iv12, v16, vi10, vii12, viii12, ix12, x12, xi12, xii12, xiii12, xiv12, xv12, xvi12, xvii14, xviii12, xix14), written in brown ink, in a highly abridged German cursive script (at least three different hands), text in two columns, with up to 38 lines per column (justification 65 x 65 x 210 mm.), quire signatures, ruled in light brown ink, occasional catchwords, capitals stroked in red, paragraph marks in red, manicula in the margin, some rubrics in red, 3-4 line high initials in red, some contemporary annotations or corrections in the margin. NEAR-CONTEMPORARY BINDING of blind-tooled blue-stained sheepskin over wooden boards, each board divided by double fillets, with outer frame left blank and central panel with intersecting fillets forming a saltire pattern with compartments filled with single small blind rosettes, each cover with 5 brass bosses (missing part of central boss on upper cover, and bottom righthand corner boss on lower cover), remnants of brass clasps, strips of parchments used to reinforce quires (some with hebrew), contemporary flyleaves with watermark similar to: Briquet, “Tête de boeuf à yeux sommée d’une fleur à six pétales,” no. 14746 (Innsbruck, 1489). This watermark was considerably used in paper found in Austria. Binding compares to Corpus der Gotischen Lederschnittenbande… (1980), n° 207 “Salzburg, nicht vor 1474”(Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibl., Inc. c. a. 321a), but further comparisons still required. (some waterstains affecting text but never affecting legibility; tear to bottom margin of second folio, again without loss of text; some worming). Dimensions 210 x 300 mm.

Includes three unpublished works, two of scholastic texts, signed and dated by an otherwise unidentified scribe from Lower Austria, and in a near-contemporary Austrian binding. The pastedowns may have been used as printers copy.


1.A portion of this manuscript is signed and dated by an unrecorded scribe: Andrea Murator, of the town of Waidhofen (Austria). The colophon (f. 225v) reads “Sc[ri]ptus e[st] iste tractatul[us] per manus Andre Murator[is] d[e] Waydhosia p[ro] bono p[a]cis Anno etc. 1427. Orate pro eo”[This treatise was copied by Andrea Murator of Waidhofen [Waidhofen an der Ybbs or an der Thaya (Niederösterreich) is a town in Lower Austria, west of Vienna]. Given the early watermarks (paper dated end of the fourteenth century), this manuscript was likely copied sometime between 1395 and 1427, terminus ad quem for this exemplar.

2.On upper pastedown, added inscription in a fifteenth-century hand: “Gerhardus Lacher de Kalcunningach [?]”and “Enti commendo me prothos. 1481”(?). Also added is an inscription quoting another work by Conrad of Soltau: “Item utrum virgo beata sit concepta in originali pecato quare interno libro.” This refers to another work by Conrad of Soltau: Questio, utrum mater Domini, Virgo beata, fuerit in peccato originali concepta (Prague, 1381; see Bautz, F. Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, IV [1992], col. 436-438).


ff. I-Iv and II-IIv, Excerpts from the Speculum humanae salvationis (Mirror of Human Salvation), vellum pastedowns with text on two columns, written in a littera hybrida, initials in bright red, first letter of each verse stroked in red, excerpts consisting of rhyming verses; fol. I: chapter X, “Mary presents her son in the Temple,” verse: “[…] Quartum est honora parentes tuos ipsis debite obediencio […]; fol. Iv: chapter X, incipit,“In precedenti capitulo audivimus quomodo Christus a magis fuit adoratus / Consequenter audiamus quomodo est in templo presentatus […]”; fol. II: chapter XI, “All the Idols fall to the ground when Jesus enters Egypt,” incipit,“In presenti capitulo audivimus quomodo Christus est oblatus …”; [latter half of the fourteenth century, based on script] [Stegmüller, VII, no. 11765, p. 505; On the Speculum humanae salvationis, see link quoted below; see also Lutz, J., and P. Perdrizet. Speculum humanæ salvationis, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1907)].

These pastedowns resemble the type used as printers’ copies to establish the incunable editions of texts in the second half of the fifteenth century. The inscription found on the upper pastedown: “Enti commendo me prothos. 1481” could perhaps suggest that the parchment was used and validated by a “prothos” or “prote” (chief of production in a printer’s workshop). The Speculum humanae salvationis was printed a number of times in the fifteenth century, in Latin (Utrecht, 1471; Augsburg, 1473), and numerous times in the vernacular.


f. 1, Contemporary inscription: Hic continet questiones super quatuor libros s[ententiarum] . [This (volume) contains the Questions on the Four Books of Sentences];

f. 1v, blank;

ff. 2-2v, Vulgate, excerpts from the Sapiential Books, Librum Sapientiae: “O quam bonus et suavis est domine spiritus tuus in omnibus… ”[Sap. 12, 1-13, 6]; “Vani sunt autem omnes homines… ” [Sap. 13, 1-6];

ff. 2v-5, Vulgate, Cantica canticorum: “Osculetur me osculo oris sui… ”; “…cervorum super montes aromatum” [Cant. 1,1-8,14];

ff. 5-9v, Vulgate, Excerpts from the Sapiential Books, Librum Sapientiae: “Liber sapientie ebreos nusquam est… ”; “…quam tua sunt domine qui amas animas. Deo gracias.” [Sap. 1, 1-11, 27];

ff. 10-53v, Conrad de Soltau, Quaestiones super quatuor libri sententiarum Petri Lombardi, Book I; Heading in upper margin, in brown ink: “Incipiunt questio[n]es super [quatu]or libros s[enten]tiar[um] ”; incipit,“Utrum per studium sacre scriture acquiratur… ”; explicit, “[…] et sic est finis quaestiones primi libri sententiarum reverendi magistri Kunradi Soltaui ”[Stegmüller (1937), no. 147, pp. 104-105; Stegmüller (1947), no. 173-176; there is no early editions nor any modern critical edition of this work];

f. 54, blank;

ff. 55-89, Conrad de Soltau, Quaestiones super quatuor libri sententiarum Petri Lombardi, Book II; Heading in upper margin: “Questiones secundi libri; incipit,Utrum mundus possit fuisse ab eterno… ”;

ff. 90- 123v, Conrad de Soltau, Quaestiones super quatuor libri sententiarum Petri Lombardi, Book III: Heading: “Tertius “; incipit,“Queritur circa tertium librum…”;

ff. 123v-166, Conrad de Soltau, Quaestiones super quatuor libri sententiarum Petri Lombardi, Book IV; Heading: “Quartus “; incipit,“Utrum divina sacramenta semper homini fuerunt…”; explicit, “Et est finis quarti libri suarum reverendi magistri Conradus Soltaw etc.; added in darker ink: “pu[n]t schuech [or schnech]”(?) ”;

f. 166v, blank;

ff. 167-172, Table of distinctiones and questiones: heading: “Iste questiones super quatuor libros sententiarum reverendi doctoris et magistri Conradi Soltaw taliter sunt situate… ”; rubric, Konig dich morgenstern [?]; explicit, “Et sic plane patet tabula super distinctiones et questiones in illo libro positas et sic est finis”; rubric, Deus meus. Eius deportabit duos florenos, portabit konnerschaÿ [?] den leych [?] etc.;

Conrad of Soltau (died in 1407) was bishop of Verden (1399) as well as an important theologian. In Prague, he came under the influence of Henry Totting of Oyta and earned his Master of Arts degree in 1368. He became rector of the University of Prague in 1384 where he attempted to play the role of mediator between quarreling Czech and German students, defending the interests of German professors within the university (Chaloupecky (1948), pp. 113-114. This was a period of awakening of Czech identity and scholarly endeavors, in opposition to the control exercised by the influential German nation, culminating with the election of Jean Hus as rector of the University in 1409. Following the clash between rivaling nations within the Charles University, Conrad of Soltau went on to be professor at Heidelberg (1387) and subsequently rector of the University of Heidelberg.

The Sentences of Peter Lombard, Bishop of Paris, is one of the most important books of the Middle Ages, written between 1146 and 1158. Its success was enormous, and the Sentences attracted numerous commentaries, including the present one by Conrad of Soltau. The Questiones quatuor librorum Sententiarum were likely composed circa 1377-1379, while Conrad was still in Prague. Although there are quite a few manuscripts copied from 1385 onwards, there are no early editions or any modern critical edition of this work [see Stegmüller (1937), no. 147, pp. 104-105; Stegmüller (1947), no. 173-176]. On Conrad of Soltau see Lexikon des Mittelalters, V, 1365; DHGE, XIII, col. 503-504; Stegmüller, [RBMA], II, pp. 253-254, no. 2018 for his Commentaries on Psalms.

ff. 172v-173v, blank;

ff. 174-211v, Thomas Aquinas, De sacramento corporis Domini; incipit,“De sacro sancto corporis domini locuturi sacramento proponimus donante deo procedere… ”; explicit, “habens vite quae nunc est et future ad quam nos perducat Iesus Christus Amen ”[recorded in Schneyer, V, p. 608, no. 412-445; published in Raulx, Sermones et opuscula concionatoria, II, Paris (1881), pp. 404-518];

This text was attributed to at least two other authors, Albertus Magnus (see P. Mandonnet in /i>Dic. Th. Cat., I, p. 674 ; ed., Antwerp, 1621, p. 181 ; and Borgnet, ed., B. Alberti Magni, XIII, pp. 669-797) and Bonaventura (see Glorieux, II, no. 305; see also Distelbrink, Bonaventurae scripta authentica…, Rome, 1975, p. 185). Schneyer attributes these sermons to Thomas Aquinas [see Schneyer, V, p. 608, no. 412-445; DSAM, I, 1846; Raulx, 1881, pp. 404-518; see also, Rothschild, J.P. Bibl. ann. du Moyen Age tardif, 1996 (6), no. 155].

ff. 212-225v, Pseudo-Albertus-Magnus or Albert Haigerloch de Oberaltaich, Compendium super Ave Maria: incipit,“A dicto magni Alberti presbiter episcopi Ratisponesis ecclesie…/ Loqui cupiens de virgine gloriosa lingua deficit…”; explicit, “…securitatem dominice resurrectionis quam nobis […] dignetur dominus noster Iesus Christus Amen Amen”[recorded in Stegmüller, RB (1976), no. 1063]; colophon: “Scriptus est iste tractatulus per manus Andre Murator[is] de Waydhosia [Waidhofen, Lower Austria] pro bono pacis anno etc. 1427 orate pro eo”.

This rare Compendium is attributed to Albertus Magnus (see Glorieux, P. Répertoire… [1933], I, no. 6). Stegmüller suggests that the Compendium is spurious, and catalogues the work under Pseudo-Albertus Magnus and further suggests that it could be a work by Albert Haigerloch de Oberaltaich [in Bavaria] OSB (1230-1316). He records only three manuscripts (Stegmüller, VIII (1976), pp. 254-255, no. 1063). A Benedictine prior, described as a mystical ascetic (see an early Vita composed c. 1344- Bibl. hag. lat. 220), Albert of Oberaltaich is recognized as “one of the most important representatives of the Oberaltaicher writing school”(Schmid, A. “Albert (Adalbert) v. Oberaltaich,” in Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, Band I, 1993, col. 332) [see also: Truhl, J. Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum latinorum qui in C.R. Bibliotheca publica atque Universitatis Pragensis asservantur (Praha, 1906): Prague, N. r. Kn. 2401, ff. 1-46v; Prague, N. r. Kn. 2676, ff. 57-130v; Rothschild, J.P. Bibl. ann. du Moyen Age tardif, 1996 (6), no. 86. There are some 15 manuscripts of this text recorded in the database In Principio and no sixteenth-century or modern edition of this text.


Albertus Magnus. B. Alberi Magni, Ratisbonensis episcope, ordinis Praedicatorum, Opera omnia… etiam revisa et locupletata cura ac labore Augusti Borgnet, Paris, L. Vivès, 1890-1899, vol. XIII [Borgnet].

Brandt, H.-J. “Universität, Gesellschaft, Politik und Pfrunden am Beispiel Konrad von Soltau,” in Les universités à la fin du Moyen Age, 1978, pp. 614-627.

Chaloupecký, Václav. L’Université Charles à Prague, sa fondation, son évolution et son caractère au XIVe siècle [de 1348 à 1409], Prague, Orbis, 1948.

Franzen, A. “Conrad de Soltau,” in Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie
, Paris, Letouzey et Ané, tome XIII, col. 503-504 [DHGE].

Glorieux, P. Répertoire des maîtres en théologie de Paris au XIIIe siècle, Saint-Amand and Paris, 1933, II.

Krause. “Dietrich von Niem, Konrad von Vechta, Konrad von Soltau, Bischöfe von Verden,” Forschungen zur deutschen Gesch. 19 (1879), p. 592 sqq., 22 (1882), p. 248 sqq.

Lang, Albert. Heinrich Totting von Oyta, Münster, 1937.

Mandonnet, P. “Albert le Grand: Les XXXII sermons de Eucharistia qui lui sont attribués” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, Paris, Letouzey, 1930, vol. I, pp. 674-675 [Dic. Th. C.].

Schmitz-Kallenberg, L. Conrad von Soltau, Iena, Frommannsche Buchdruckerei, 1891.

Schneyer, J.B. Repertorium der latenischen Sermones des Mittelalters, vol. V, München, 1974.

Stegmüller, F. Repertorium initiorum plurimorum in “Sententias ”Petri Lombardi commentariorum, Freiburg, Herder, 1937, no. 147, pp. 104-105.

Stegmüller, F. Repertorium commentariorum in sententias Petri Lombardi, I,Würzburg, Herbipoli, 1947, n° 173-176.

Stegmüller, F. Repertorium biblicum medii aevi, Madrid, II (1950), no. 2018-2022; VII (1961), no. 11765; Supplementum, VIII (1976), no. 1063 [RBMA].

Thomas Aquinas. Sermones et opuscula concionatoria, Barri-Ducis [ed. J.-B. Raulx], vol. II, 1881, pp. 404-518 [Raulx].

Online resources

On the Latin Manuscripts of the Speculum Humanae Salvationis

An Electronic Database of Medieval Commentators on Petrus Lombard's Sentences

On Conrad of Soltau

On Petrus Lombard, his Sententiarum quatuor libri in Latin and English